Effects of horses on ancient European and Chinese cavalry tactics

Horses and other animals, an animal with different geographical growth is also very different. China is the main origin of horse
Mongolia, Yunnan pony horse this category. Movies and sports arena now common kind of tall horses mainly native to Europe and Central Asia
. Ancient famous Grand Wanma, Ferghana BMW are all imported from Central Asia.
ancient Europe attaches great importance to breeding horses, Andalusian horses from Spain, Central Asia, the introduction of Arabian horses and other original
varieties start, preferably continuously, breeding, the development of more and more tall, weight, sprint capacity is growing horses. But this
comp excellent horses is not perfect, it has two major disadvantages, a endurance is poor, and the other is kept
High cost. Such a horse to be fed, grass eating light is not enough, we must feed hay, beans and other high-protein feed
to stay healthy, let alone to bear the enormous consumption of the fighting.
With high load, a strong ability to sprint horse, you can give the cavalry and horses are put on armor, but also because of the heavy cavalry often
undertake the most dangerous assault mission, troops guard is more and more heavy armor, knight armor before beginning a weight of about 20 kilograms
later can reach 40 horses draped between 20-40. To around the 15th century, the total weight of Europe after some heavy cavalry troops armed
the amount of accessible 1.5 tons. Make a comparison, the common market of the van Changan weight 980 kg, made of ordinary pickup truck
weight of 1,500 kilograms. In other words, the European heavy cavalry is equivalent to the weight of the car. Imagine 100 pickup truck platoon
in a row assault, although the speed may be 20 km per hour, but not human can resist. Such weight,
plus horses themselves poor endurance, the European heavy cavalry is the basic one-shot deal, a battle can only charge a couple of times, but through
effects are often the hammer very good. Ancient cold weapons of war, especially in Europe infantry weapon used is several meters long spear [12At 3]
where, the formation neat chance of victory greater infantry battle, after the formation is broken, such as a single infantry of the forest
is substantially no chance of the spear. A hammer is heavy cavalry to other formation broke down, and then by the own neat infantry side
Array formation scattered infantry annihilate each other.
Such heavy cavalry, except that only one or two sprint outside this drawback, there is another problem that the armor men
does not wear off easily. As the full set of armor is too heavy, the people are not free to put on basic horse up and down, you need to
helped by the auxiliary soldiers or servants, and some can not even overweight armor he wears off, you need someone to help with a screwdriver on the dress. So heavy equipment,
can not be put on beforehand waiting for battle, so that men and horses are too much. Therefore, heavy cavalry takes a long time
on the battlefield wearing the equipment, the whole team, and then attack him. Another thing is clear, the heavy cavalry in the mountains, trees and other terrain is red can not afford
come, can only go by in the plains. Therefore, heavy cavalry to the battlefield at the right, ones own can form at least a stalemate scenes
on
when it is used, or else not to heavy cavalry and horse, the other party has come to hand.
Of course, medieval Europe very particular about chivalry, battle basically have a good time agreed upon in advance, place, together with the EU
Chau relatively flat terrain in general, heavy cavalry often play a role a.
In addition to the European heavy cavalry, light cavalry of course, but the face of sophisticated spear phalanx, light cavalry defense force and impact
are inadequate, mainly used for the detection, screening, raid, chasing after the victory. It should be noted that the European light cavalry armor also
is not weak, than most of the ancient Chinese army.
European Having said that, come back to talk about China. He said earlier, the lack of large-scale ancient Chinese horses, more similar in Europe
heavy cavalry troops in Central Asia to introduce large-scale horse from the Han Dynasty began to develop, but large-scale horse was small, basic and only high-ranking officers can hold
There are a large horse, natural conditions without the formation of the organized cavalry. Some people say that the Tiger Balm riding Cao Cao is heavy cavalry, but Butch riding
and in the levy Wuhuan ChangBanPo station has a long-range raid experience, “a line of three hundred years, day and night,” heavy European standards obviously cavalry
not have such power machines. Personally I think that should belong to Tiger Balm riding equipment to strengthen the light cavalry, heavy cavalry from standard there
gap.
With the development and introduction of large-scale metallurgical technical horses, to the Sui and Tang dynasties, Mingguang armor weight has reached 35 kg, up to
to the standards of the European heavy cavalry. Emperor Zheng Korea Qibi it also has the force of 800 cavalry defeated Korea million records of reinforcements.
The other is the Southern Song Dynasty Jin famous iron Buddha, Song of the record is “heavy armor are fully armored,” “double iron is pocket iron pot, Zhou
long turns are decorated eaves, there is the carpet under the pillow “, the dress and heavy cavalry in Europe almost the same. After
Song, Yuan, Ming have no clear heavy cavalry appeared. There are probably several reasons.
First, China does not produce a large horse, mainly by the introduction of large-scale horse from Central Asia, it can be used to set up a small heavy cavalry horse.
Second, China varied terrain, suitable for heavy cavalry place to play a role not too many Chinese war nor an appointment
places habit, generally do not have time to re-fight cavalry wear equipment, have time to wear the other party does not necessarily give you the equipment to play
terrain. Know you have heavy cavalry, the other must find ways to choose the terrain is not conducive to a heavy cavalry charge.
Third, the high cost of heavy cavalry. It takes a heavy cavalry arrived at least 10 hoplites, in southern Chinas large horse
with less cases more expensive. Golden State occupying the northern grasslands, just exterminate Khitan, the case was to organize national Masamori 5000 iron
Buddha, showing the formation of heavy cavalry difficult. In Europe, heavy cavalry horses and knights are equipped to prepare their own, while Chinese habit
centralized government soldiers to provide horse and equipment, spent a considerable priceBut often do not have access, the government is not enthusiastic.
Fourth, there is a purification of the horses from the Warring States period of Chinese tradition, reportedly because the horses spring to prevent estrus, the battlefield
poor control
on. The heavy cavalry sure to choose the best horses, the best horse gelding, and not leave offspring, and no European election
species, breeding of enthusiasm, down from generation to generation, we only have less than what a good horse , no good horse, no heavy cavalry.
Fifth, and Europe with different spear infantry phalanx, ancient Chinese infantry utility knife, a gun, wear leather armor or light armored
face 4-6 m cavalry spear square is a disadvantage of knife shield infantry and Marines 2-3 m still very lethal.
In short, for various reasons, in ancient China to develop light cavalry and heavy cavalry ignored. While the light cavalry tactics to play to the
is undoubtedly the ultimate Mongols, an important factor is the Mongolian horse. Mongolian though short, sprint speed is slow, but
strong adaptability to the environment, good stamina, and extremely rare can eat grass alone will be able to maintain their strength in the long march, this is a very
great pressure to reduce logistical Mongol army, making long-distance expedition to the Mongolian army could rely on cavalry. Mongolia can be performed at 100,000 cavalry
on the expedition, which is the European army can not do, 100,000 horses eat forage that is an astronomical figure, and also
long-distance transport but I can not imagine. A typical composition of
60% of Mongolian military light cavalry, 40% of the cavalry, but the severity just inside the comparison. Mongolia
of light cavalry armor-piercing hardly to maintain the highest mobility, responsible riding and shooting, we may call archers; Mongol cavalry wear
scales or a lock, horse Phi Leather, total defense and European light cavalry fairly even slightly weaker, we may call the cavalry fight,
and the European heavy cavalry, respectively.
Mongolian expedition Europe when major components or spear infantry and cavalry troops in Europe, said earlier, when the light
rideSoldiers in Europe is not the main force. The face of the Mongolian army tactics, European armies could not get. Spear infantry phalanx out, Mongolia
to archers constantly passing from the square next to the bow and arrow killing infantry, infantry and other scattered formation, and then fight anti-cavalry charge
infantry. European heavy cavalry because the load is too large, sprint speed is unpleasant, the Mongolian army kept their distance, and as long as you are not in contact
on the line. Some people say that with the heavy cavalry archers killing, is unrealistic, heavy cavalry wear heavy plate armor almost ignore the bow
cavalry shooting. Cavalry in order to facilitate shooting immediately, carrying the bow with a bow is smaller than the average number of infantry, killing
force is weak against infantry armor okay, for the heavy cavalry armor plate read is not enough . But as I say, heavy cavalry horse up and down,
armor to wear off all want help, who can not wear heavy armor of the bar. Mongolian cavalry troops regardless of your weight, concentrate on attacking
and other auxiliary infantry soldiers, other branches of the military gone, heavy cavalry is put away. Or with two laps around the cavalry, the heavy
cavalry not tired, and kneaded up combat cavalry punches.
Here some people may ask, why not the same European military tactics of the Mongol army do? The reason is simple, he
their bow can not use it. Europe was then bow bow monomer, it is basically a long stick with a string tied bend over. Such bow
To increase the power is to increase the length of the main bow. The famous English Longbow, is more than 1.5 meters, and 1.8 meters even
two meters long bow, this bow on horseback very easy to use. Mongolia and recurve with the composite material, can be done within 1
m, can be easily shot at once.
Of course, the Mongol army is not invincible, near the Mediterranean, they encountered a nemesis, Mamluk Egypt riding
soldiers, should be equivalent light cavalry in Europe, and Mongolia melee cavalry equipment comparable or better, faster horses short sprint speed,
can catch up with the Mongolian cavalry, mountedPreparation is not bad, but also physically larger size, strength is also stronger, what put the Mongol army beaten senseless,
six games five wins, a Mongolian lose just miserable victory.
Later, with the development of firearms, light cavalry in Europe and gradually developed, but no longer as a cavalry charge with, and become tools
pure hurry, cavalry to dismount a place to musket as the primary means of destruction, this is the dragoons.
because locally different horse breeds, coupled with the natural environmental constraints, leading to Western cavalry tactics to completely different ways
direction, showing the kind of tactics are not invincible, and can only say more adapted to an environment, another place may have to flutter Street.
In addition a feeling, now world famous horses of various variety of scenery, our own Mongolian horse is gradually dying out, no
one to interfere, good things do not really lost to cherish.
have to cherish the present is the fundamental national prosperity, past the horse, now natural resources and land area, are fundamental for the survival of the country, good things do not really lost only treasure.
relative to the average Mongolian indicators, the most important is the endurance and stamina, there is no outstanding performance horse, natural scenery is hard, after all, has no place in the cavalry. If China is still retain a large contingent of horse cavalry, it was really terrible thing. Mongolian fewer, and reduce our grasslands have a great relationship, so that environmental protection might as well do this for the benefit of future generations to do it
equestrian endurance race is special International Equestrian Federation Equestre Internationale (FEI) set events, reflecting the FEI horses welfare above all of the principle of competition. Star game is divided into four levels depending on the cross-country race distance. Star is a primary game, requires complete rider and horse race distance at least 80 kilometers within a predetermined time. The highest four-star rating, requiring riders and horses to race to complete the 160 kilometers in a single day race. To force the horses at regular vet and rest on the endurance race in accordance with a certain distance. Competition results, according to the game is to restore the heartbeat phase for traveling and accumulate during normal use to get, which is a major difference between different from the sprint and endurance of the Chinese nation.
I think this game is suitable for MongoliaHorse play, the key is to pay attention to selection, breeding, not laissez-faire retention. Now, because no one seriously, Mongolian general trend is degraded.
Cavalry in China has been no large-scale development up! The fiction that easily hundreds of thousands of cavalry is bullsh * t! ! ! Just imagine how much forage needed by a horse cavalry count 200,000 300,000 minimum to prepare only enough of horses! Fiction and stuff, so pure bullsh obscenity does not have to take it seriously!
is Chinas most important bad habits lead to a large number of Chinese can not equip the cavalry! Because Chinas horses are “eunuchs”! Because China is the Central Plains farming nation is riding for a layman! In order to keep horses on the battlefield do not obey orders to put the horses made the spring castration do not let it cause too active! Imagine the quality of the horses have been chosen as the horses and then castrated no offspring result can only be a horse Generations! Offspring behind horses are not eligible for election horse breeding offspring of horses as a result, ultimately, short ass! So Chinas cavalry and a nickname is the “donkey” soldiers! They are not riding the horse but “ass”! ! ! !
China has two major characteristics of the Chinese nation in the lead to the loss of most heyday as the worlds best fighters were not national teams!
One is the horse castration horse castration results in China horses generation is worse than last degenerated into “ass”! Imagine farming nation does not lack is food heyday raise several hundred thousand horses have to support it! Because of ancient varieties have been castrated policies lead to extinction so there is no quality stallion horse cavalry lead generation as a generation become tasteless! ! ! !
Second Confucian doctrine was for their own cherished forever rulers shameless rulers touted modified his doctrine rulers led to bloody ethnic Chinese castrated know obedient slaves without knowing revolt! Enterprising spirit is being suppressed disappeared! Only cowardly obedience “father-son” “patriotic loyalty” hypocritical shit! Widow threw a feast Confucian traitorous rush! ! ! ! Emperor Wu of Han and Dong Zhongshu both the instigator of all ages should be reviled notoriety!
Chairman Mao foresight “Pilinpikong” Unfortunately begin with! unfortunately! ! ! unfortunately! ! !
In ancient cavalry is very powerful, but it is very costly to raise cavalry horseFeeding the horses, baggage and other cavalry are very cost money, so the number of cavalry will not be many.
degree of urbanization in China is not so ancient Europe developed, China has already entered a farming civilization, and in the development of most of the city is for the purpose of the attack, so this decision is not a very heavily armored cavalry battle in China a big advantage at all, but also more harm than good, it has always been nomadic invasion to China from north to south in China, but also to go through a long war, but let the Chinese agricultural and nomadic ready to play when consumption war against nomads who is a nightmare, such as the Han Dynasty is an example, any military weapons are in constant change has been faster and farther toward the development of more accurate, for the cavalry cold weapons may also have a great advantage, but to any Chinese invention of gunpowder and weapons used in the war after the cavalry would be able to launch the stage of history, and tragedy than most of the German blitz of Poland, cavalry actually go to the tragic impact of the tank, so now it seems all will continue to be eliminated, humanity has to go further, faster and more accurate weapons and developed no weapons can protect conquer the world, the most important element of the war, in fact, people, talent is the key to war, so what kind of person What kind of war, but people used horses to reach their own war weapons purposes.
Besides a few small knowledge, the real impact of European cavalry maximize operational effectiveness is China, the invention of the stirrup China to Europe after the liberation of Europe cavalry feet cavalry greatly enhance the combat effectiveness.
In fact, Europe has also been offensive in Asia, was offensive to India when the European cavalry defeated mess, because he met in India as soldiers, even if it is difficult to deal with heavy cavalry such as soldiers.
China five thousand years of civilization, is born in the war, the Chinese strategy and tactics when playing in Europe still do it?
subject to the constraints of heavy cavalry too big, not very good in countries like China applicability of varied terrain. And the cost is too high.
horses must be castrated, Europe, too, not castrated stallions temper temper, usually riding at risk, let alone on the battlefield.
Filed Under primary science, a lot of details open to question, the quality of horses is not critical, it is the traditional core of cavalry. Therefore, the most important thing is the idea.
Also mentioned in the text: to around the 15th century, the whole of Europe and some heavy cavalry troopsVice accessible after armed the total weight of 1.5 tons. All lip service, most heavy horses, such as Frances Paish Palma about 800kg, the usual British Thoroughbred, warm learn German horse, Arabian horse between 400-500kg, Mongolian only about 370kg, so the horses together horse armor in general is 600kg or less, a knight 100kg, armor does not exceed 50kg, 1.5 tons from a big gap. read more

Atlanta United owner Arthur Blanks foundation donates $5.4 million to coronavirus relief efforts

Atlanta United owner Arthur Blank, through his family foundation, is donating $5.4 million to COVID-19 relief efforts, both immediate and long-term, in Georgia and Montana.

“As a Family Foundation we have always believed that it is the power of many that will make the greatest impact on the most pressing issues in our society,” Blank said in a statement. “This is that moment — to join together to truly harness the power of all of us to address a challenge that knows no boundaries and has no precedent in our lifetimes.”

The foundation is granting $5 million to the Greater Atlanta COVID-19 Response and Recovery Fund, established by United Way of Greater Atlanta and Community Foundation for Greater Atlanta.

It helps those in economically vulnerable populations facing a sudden gap in support. Funds will go to nonprofit organizations that address food insecurity, housing stability, medical supports and childcare among pressing concerns.

“Thank you to The Arthur M. Blank Foundation for their generous investment in the Greater Atlanta COVID-19 Response and Recovery Fund,” United Way of Greater Atlanta CEO Milton J. Little, Jr said in a statement. “The Foundation’s gift will give our children, families, communities and the nonprofits who support them across Greater Atlanta the resources they need during a time of great economic crisis. Our leaders continue to step up and support the residents of our great city and we couldn’t be more grateful.”

Blank’s foundation has also issued matching $100,000 grants to Hands on Atlanta, which helps support public schools across Atlanta, and the Atlanta Police Foundation.

In addition, Mercedes-Benz Stadium is donating 3.5 tons of surplus food, a value of $100,000, that will provide 2,310 meals to six Atlanta-area nonprofit groups.

The foundation is also granting $50,000 to Hopa Mountain in Montana to aid Native America and Latino workers who have been displaced by the closing of hospitality venues. An addition $50,000 will go to HRDC to find alternative housing options for area homeless

Another $25,000 is donated to the Gallatin Valley Food Bank, and $20,000 to both the Healthy Gallatin Campaign and the Livingston Food Resource Center to those in Park County who need emergency food support, including the area’s most at-risk during the pandemic — the children and elderly.

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